Various Kinds Of Umrah
Various Kinds Of Umrah
Like the obligatory pilgrimage, the optional pilgrimage is also at times obligatory and at times optional. It is Mufradah or Tamatoo.
Like the pilgrimage, the umrah is obligatory on all those with means and, like the obligatory pilgrimage, becomes obligatory immediately upon attainment of means, although the means may be sufficient for the umrah but not for a pilgrimage. However, it is apparent that if a person's responsibility is the performance of Hajj-ul-Tamat'toe, the Umrat-ul Mufradah is not obligatory on him. Thus if an agent performs all the ceremonies of the obligatory pilgrimage on behalf of a principal, then the performance of an Umrat-ul Mufradah for himself is not obligatory on him even if he has the means to perform it, although as a matter of precaution it is better to do so.
It is recommended to perform the optional pilgrimage repeatedly. It is preferable that it be performed every month. It is better that a month elapse between two such pilgrimages, that is, if the last optional pilgrimage was performed at the end of the last month, then the next one also be performed at the end of the month. It is not permissible to perform two such optional pilgrimages in the same month. There is no objection to a person performing two optional pilgrimages, one for himself or another and the other in the hope that it is required by the Sharia ('Raja") or one for himself and the other for another person or both of them for another person or if one is Mufradah and the other Tamatoo. So if a person has performed Umrat-ul-Mufradah, it is permissible for him to perform Umrat-ul-Tamatoo after it in the same month and the same is the rule about performing an Umrat-ul-Mufradah on completion of an obligatory pilgrimage. However, it is not permissible to perform an optional pilgrimage between the Umrat-ul-Tamatoo and the obligatory pilgrimage.
Just as the optional pilgrimage becomes obligatory to perform on attainment of means, so does it become obligatory to fulfil a vow, oath, promise or otherwise.
With regard to the ceremonies involved, the two optional pilgrimages, Mufradah and Tamatoo closely resemble with a few differences which are :
(1) in Umrat-ul-Mufradah, it is obligatory to perform Tawaaf ul-Nisa but it is not obligatory in Umrat-ul-Tamat'toe;
(2) Umrat-ul-Tamatoo can only be performed during the season of the obligatory pilgrimage, namely, Shawaal, Dhil Qa'dah and Dhil Hijjah while it is permissible to perform the Umrat-uI-Mufradah during all the months of the year, preferably in Rajab;
(3) in Umrat-ul-Tamat'toe, the ihram can be removed only after Taqseer, while in Umrat-ul-Mufradah it can be removed after Taqseer or shaving the head;
(4) it is obligatory to perform Umrat-ul-Tamat'toe and the obligatory pilgrimage in the same year but that is not the rule for Umrat-ul-Mufradah. If Hajj-ul-Ifraad and Umrat-ul-Ifraad have become obligatory on a person, it is permissible for him to perform the Hajj-ul-Ifraad in one year and the Umrat-ul-Ifraad in the other year;
(5) in Umrat-ul-Mufradah, if a person deliberately indulges in sexual intercourse before Saee, his pilgrimage becomes invalidated and he becomes obliged to perform the pilgrimage again, that is to stay in Makkah to the following month to perform it. However, if he does so during Umrat-ul-Tamat'toe it is doubtful if it would be invalidated and the better view is that it will not be affected as will appear below.
In Umrat-ul-Mufradah as in Umrat-ul-Tamatoo one must wear ihram at the Meeqaat itself as will be explained below and if the person is in Makkah and intends to perform an Umrat-ul-Mufradah, it is permissible for him to come out of the Haram and wear his ihram and it is not obligatory for him to proceed to a Meeqaat and wear the ihram there and it is permissible for him to wear the ihram at Hudaybiyyah or Je'aranah or Tan'eem. the only exception to this rule is when a person invalidates his Umrat-ul-Mufradah by having sexual intercourse with his wife before Saee. In this case, as a matter of precaution, he must repeat the ihram for a new umrah from a meeqaat and it is not permissible to wear ihram in such a case from Tan'eem.
It is obligatory to perform an Umrat-ul-Mufradah if one intends to enter Makkah, for it is not permissible to enter the city without ihram except for those who enter and depart from there regularly like the woodcutter or grasscutter. Similarly, if a person has completed Umrat-ul Tamatoo and Hajj, or after Umrat-ul-Mufradah and has left Makkah, he is permitted to reenter without ihram before the expiring of the same month in which the Umrah was performed.
If a person performs the Umrat-ul-Mufradah during the Hajj season and remains in Makkah to the 8th of Dhil Hajj, he is permitted to treat it as the Umrat-ul-Tamat'toe and perform the obligatory pilgrimage. In this regard there is no difference between the obligatory pilgrimage and the optional one.