THE PROCEDURE FOR IHRAM
THE PROCEDURE FOR IHRAM
Three Obligations for Ihram:
First: Niyyah, that is, the pilgrim forms the intention to perform what is obligatory on him by way of Umrah and Hajj to attain nearness to Allah. If he does not know all the ceremonies in detail, he must form the intention generally. In such a case, it is obligatory that he should know of what is obligatory on him item by item by checking from the Rules or from the learned he trusts. In the niyyah, the following must be included:
(1) that the intention must be to attain nearness to Allah, just as in other forms of worship;
(2) that the intention must be formed at the definite places specified before under the heading of meeqaats;
(3) that the ihram is worn for Umrah or Hajj, and whether for Hajj-ul-Tamat'toe, Qiraan or Ifraad, if it was on behalf of someone else, such intention must be expressly formed. However, if it was for oneself, not intending it to be for someone else is sufficient. It is apparent that one who wishes to perform a pilgrimage to fulfil a vow must perform the ceremonies to accomplish the vow without any need to state expressly the intention of a pilgrimage upon a vow for oneself or on behalf of another, for Hijjatul Islam, Hajj to fulfil a vow, obligatory as a penalty or optional. If the intention is formed without determining the pilgrimage, the ihram will be invalid.
It is not necessary to utter the intention aloud or mentally. It is enough that the intention is consciously formed as in other forms of worship.
There is no requirement for the validity of the ihram that there should be a determination to refrain from all the prohibitions from the wearing of it to its removal except for sexual intercourse and masturbation. Thus if a pilgrim intends from the wearing of ihram for obligatory pilgrimage to have sexual intercourse with his wife or masturbate before the stay at Muzdalifah or wavers on this matter, his ihram is invalidated. However, if he does not intend from the wearing of the ihram not to refrain from them but after wearing ihram intends to commit either of them, the ihram is not vitiated.
Second: Talbiyah, that is, to utter as follows: "Labbaik, Allahumma labbaik, labbaik, la sharika laka labbaik". And it is highly preferable to add the following: "Innal hamda wanni'amata laka wal mulk, la sharika laka". It is permissible to add "labbaik" and say, "la sharika laka labbaik". Every pilgrim must learn the proper pronunciation of the words of the talbiyah and recite them correctly just as the recitation of the Takbiratul Ehram in prayers, even if it is by following another person reciting these words. If a person does not have the proper pronunciation of the words nor is there a person whom he can follow, he is still obliged to recite the words as best he can unless his recitation is such that it is not considered to be talbiyah. In such a situation, it is preferable that he should recite as much as he can, recite the translation of the talbiyah and appoint an agent to recite it on his behalf.
A person who becomes dumb as a result of disease or injury should recite talbiyah as much as he can and if he is unable to recite he must move his tongue and lips while he is making intention and make gestures by fingers which coordinate with the recitation.
A person born dumb should move his tongue and lips as if he is reciting and make gestures by fingers as well.
For the unconscious or the retarded, another person must recite for him.
The ihram for Hajj-ul-Tamatoo, Umrat-ul-Tamat'toe, Hajj-ul-Ifraad or Umrat-ul-Mufradah is not complete without talbiyah. As for Hajj-ul-Qiraan, it can be completed with talbiyah or signs or by the following ways: the first by the sacrifice of a camel, the pilgrim, standing to the left of the camel, must tear off the right side of the hump of the camel letting its blood ooze out and the second by garlanding a camel or one of the other animals round its neck with worn slippers used when going to pray. It is preferable that both the methods be used. In Hajj-ul-Qiraan it is preferable that the talbiyah be recited even if the ihram was worn by following either of the methods.
Purity from urine or excrement is not a condition for the validity of the ihram. Thus, a person can wear ihram even in condition of janabah, haydh, nifaas or the like.
The position of talbiyah in ihram is that of Takbirat-ul-Ihram in prayers (salaat). Ihram is not complete without it or the other two methods discussed above, particularly in Qiraan. Therefore, if a person wears the ihram and the two pieces of cloth but before reciting the talbiyah performs one of the acts prohibited during ihram, he has not done any wrong and there is no penalty on him.
If a person proceeds on pilgrimage via Masjidul Haram, it is preferable to delay the recitation of talbiyah till he reaches Bayda, which is the end of Dhul Hulaifa and where the ground becomes flat but, as a matter of caution, he must recite the talbiyah without delay and on reaching there should recite loudly and openly.If he proceeds by any other route, it is preferable to delay the recitation till he has walked a little. If a person proceeds on the pilgrimage from the Holy Mosque, he can delay it till he reaches Raqtaa which is a place near the Masjid-ul-Rayah, a little before Masjid-ul-Jinn.
As a matter of caution, a person performing Umrat-ul-Tamatoo must stop the recitation of the talbiyah on sighting the houses of old Makkah and those arriving from the route of Madinah at the rear of Madniyeen. Those performing Umrat-ul-Mufradah must stop the recitation on entering the Haram if they have arrived from outside Makkah and for those who have gone outside Makkah only to wear ihram should cease the recitation on sighting the Holy Kaaba. Those performing the Hajj must stop the recitation at noon on the day of Arafaat.
If after wearing the two pieces of cloth for ihram but before departing from the meeqaat, a person entertains a doubt as to whether he had recited the talbiyah or not, he should recite the talbiyah and if the doubt arises after the recitation as to whether he had recited it correctly, he should resolve that he had.
Third: Wearing the two pieces of cloth after abstaining from the matters prohibited during ihram is obligatory; but children are an exception in this rule as they can delay wearing ihram till Fakh if they take that route. It is apparent that there is no certain way of wearing them. So, one can wear one of the pieces of cloth round the waist however he wishes and place the other piece over the shoulders or use it as a robe but, as a matter of caution, the two pieces should be worn in the ordinary way.
Wearing of the two pieces of cloth is obligatory as a matter of obedience in worship but is not a condition for the validity of the ihram.
As a matter of caution, it is necessary that the cloth worn round the waist should cover the portion from the navel to the knee and the other cloth should cover both the shoulders, arms and a considerable part of the back. As a matter of caution, both the pieces must be worn before the niyyah and talbiyah; if the niyyah and talbiyah precede the wearing of the ihram, the pilgrim must make the niyyah and recite the talbiyah again after wearing the ihram.
If through ignorance or oversight the ihram is worn over a shirt, the shirt must be removed immediately and the ihram is valid. It is clear that the ihram is valid even if the shirt was worn deliberately. However, if it is put on after wearing ihram there will be no doubt that the ihram will be valid but the shirt must be removed from below.
There is no objection in having more than the two pieces of cloth in ihram at the time of wearing it or afterwards for protection against heat or cold or for other reason.
The conditions as to the cloth that may be worn in prayers (salaat) also apply to the cloth used for ihram. It is necessary that they should not be made of pure silk or any wild animal or from parts of the body of an animal whose meat is forbidden or from gold and both the pieces must be clean (not najis).
It is necessary that the cloth worn round the waist be of the quality that the body is concealed and is not exposed but the cloth round the shoulders need not be of such quality.
As a matter of great caution, both the pieces must be of textile, and not of leather or hide.
The obligation to wear the two pieces round the waist and the shoulders is confined to males only and does not apply to females who may wear as ihram their usual clothes which would comply with the conditions.
It is forbidden to wear ihram made of silk and although generally the rule is for males it also applies to females in respect of ihram and as a matter of caution, females must not wear anything made of pure silk throughout the period of ihram, except in the case of necessity as for protection from cold or heat.
If either or both of the pieces of cloth worn as ihram become unclean (najis), as a matter of caution, it or they must be changed or cleaned as soon as possible.
It is not obligatory to have the cloths of ihram on all the time. There is no objection to its removal, whether necessary to do so or not. Nor is there any objection to changing them provided the other pair complies with the conditions.