This pilgrimage consists of two parts, the first of which is called Umrah and the second Hajj. The Hajj-ul-Tamat'toe applies to the second part but it is obligatory to perform the Umrah before the Hajj.
Five matters are obligatory in Umrat-ul-Tamat'toe:
First: ihram must be worn at one of the meeqaats which will be elucidated below;
Second: Tawaaf round the Kaaba;
Third: prayers (salaat) after the Tawaaf;
Fourth: Saee between Safaa and Marwah;
Fifth: Taqseer, that is, to remove some hair of the head, beard or moustache. On completion of these five acts, one is out of ihram and all those matters which were forbidden during ihram become lawful.
It is obligatory on the pilgrim to be prepared to undertake the requirements of the pilgrimage on approaching the ninth of Dhil Hijjah. There are thirteen compulsory matters in the obligatory pilgrimage:
(1) wearing ihram in Makkah (details of which will follow);
(2) staying in Arafaat from noon on the ninth of Dhil Hijjah till maghrib. It is situated about twelve miles from Makkah;
(3) staying in Muzdalifah part of the eve of Idd-ul-Adha till sunrise on the day of Idd-ul-Adhha. It is situated between Arafaat and Makkah;
(4) stoning the Jamrat-ul-Uqbah in Mina on the day of Idd. Mina is situated about three miles from Makkah;
(5) slaughtering an animal in Mina on the day of Idd;
(6) shaving the head or removing some hair in Mina. On completion of these acts, matters forbidden during ihram become lawful except woman, perfume and hunting;
(7) Tawaaf (Tawaaf ul-ziyarah) on returning to Makkah;
(8) prayers (salaat) after the Tawaaf;
(9) Saee between Safaa and Marwah. At this stage wearing perfume becomes lawful;
(10) Tawaaf ul-ni'sa;
(11) prayers (salaat) after Tawaaf ul-nisa;
(12) remaining in Mina during the eve of the eleventh and twelfth and, in certain circumstances which will be explained below, the eve of the thirteenth also;
(13) stoning all the three jamaraat on the eleventh and twelfth and, if the pilgrim is there on the thirteenth.
There are a few conditions for Hajj-ul-Tamat'toe:
(1) Niyyah, that is, one must form the intention of performing Hajj-ul-Tamatoo. If one forms an intention to perform other than Hajj-ul-Tamatoo or wavers in his intention, the pilgrimage is invalidated.
(2) The Umrah and Hajj must be performed during the season of Hajj. If any part of the Umrah is performed before commencement of Shawwal, the Umrah is invalid.
(3) The Umrah and Hajj must be performed in the same year. If the Umrah is performed and then the Hajj is postponed to the next year, the Tamatoo is invalid. It makes no difference whether the pilgrim remains in Makkah to the following year or goes back to his country and then returns to Makkah just as it makes no difference whether he removes the ihram or remains in it to the following year.
(4) As a matter of choice, the ihram for Hajj must be worn in Makkah itself and the best place for it is the Holy Mosque but if it is not possible to wear ihram in Makkah then it may be worn wherever possible.
(5) The Umrah and Hajj must both be performed by the same person as an agent of the same one person. It is not permissible to engage two agents for a living or dead person for Hajj-ul-Tamatoo, one to perform the Umrah and the other the Hajj. Similarly, it is not permissible that one person may perform the Umrah on behalf of one person and the Hajj for another.
If a pilgrim completes the ceremonies for the Umrat-ul Tamat'toe, it is obligatory on him to perform the Hajj. As a matter of precaution, it is not permissible for him to depart from Makkah without performing the Hajj. However, if he wishes to do so, even if not necessary, and there is no fear of missing the Hajj, then if he is sure he can return to Makkah to wear ihram in time, it is apparent that he can depart from Makkah without ihram. But if he is not so sure, it is obligatory on him to wear the ihram for Hajj in Makkah and then depart from Makkah and proceed to Arafaat in the same ihram. It is not permissible for a person who has performed Umrat-ul Tamat'toe to leave the Hajj even though it is a recommended one.
It is permissible for a pilgrim whose obligation is Hijjatul Tamatoo to depart from Makkah before completion of his Umrah if he is able to return to Makkah; otherwise, as a matter of precaution, he should not do so.
The prohibition against leaving Makkah on completion of the Umrah arises if one is to depart from the city for another place. However, the new streets and suburbs which are considered part of the Holy City nowadays are included as being within Makkah. Thus, the pilgrim can visit them after completion of the Umrah, whether necessary to do so or not.
If the pilgrim has departed from Makkah after completing the Umrah without ihram and goes beyond the meeqaat, then two, situations arise:
First: if he returns to Makkah within the same month of completing the Umrah, then he must enter Makkah without ihram, wear the ihram in Makkah for Hajj and depart for Arafaat;
Second: if he returns to Makkah after expiry of the month in which he performed the Umrah, then he must repeat the Umrah.
If the obligation of a person is to perform Hajj-ul-Tamat'toe, he cannot change it to Ifraad or Qiraan. There can be an exception if a pilgrim embarks upon the Umrat-ul-Tamatoo, then finds the time too limited to complete the Umrah and commence the Hajj, he can change his intention (niyyah) to Hajj-ul-Ifraad and perform the Umrat-ul-Mufradah after the Hajj. The test as to how much time would be considered too limited to complete the Umrah differs with the scholars, but it is apparent that he must change his intention if he cannot complete the Umrah before midday of the 9th of Dhil Hajj.
If before embarking upon the Umrah, the pilgrim for Tamatoo is aware that his time is too limited to complete the Umrah and commence the Hajj, he is not permitted to change his intention (niyyah) as in the preceding rule but must perform the Hijjatul Tamatoo after the Umrah if the pilgrimage was fixed upon him.
If a pilgrim wears the ihram for Umrat-ul-Tamat'toe in good time but deliberately delays the Tawaaf and Saee till the noon of the 9th of Dhil Hajj, his Umrah is invalid and it is apparent that he is not permitted to change his intention (niyyah) to Ifraad but, as a matter of caution, he must perform the Tawaaf and recite the prayers after it, perform the Saee and shave or do Taqseer with the intention of acceptance as Hajj-ul-Ifraad or Umrat-ul-Mufradah.